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What these singing clergy members do and how they are trained.

A cantor — hazzan (חזן) in Hebrew — is the person who chants worship services in the synagogue. Though the word is sometimes applied in a general way to anyone who leads services, it is more commonly used to denote someone who has completed professional musical training and been ordained as a cantor.

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Professional cantors are a comparatively recent innovation in Jewish life. The earliest appearances of the word “hazzan” in Jewish literature are in the


Pronounced: MISH-nuh, Origin: Hebrew, code of Jewish law compiled in the first centuries of the Common Era. Together with the Gemara, it makes up the Talmud.


Pronounced: TALL-mud, Origin: Hebrew, the set of teachings and commentaries on the Torah that form the basis for Jewish law. Comprised of the Mishnah and the Gemara, it contains the opinions of thousands of rabbis from different periods in Jewish history.

The emergence of the modern cantorate dates to the 1700s, an era in which efforts to craft a more dignified and modern synagogue service led to the emulation of many features of Christian worship, including the development of a canon of liturgical melodies grounded in Western musical theory and rules of harmony. A handful of early cantors began to emulate their Christian colleagues — including by borrowing the very term cantor, which had been used to describe the individual who led music in the church. Among the early pioneering cantors was the Viennese composer Salomon Sulzer, whose 1840 publication Shir Tziyyon provided melodies for many parts of the synagogue service. The common melody for the


Pronounced: shuh-MAH or SHMAH, Alternate Spellings: Sh’ma, Shma, Origin: Hebrew, the central prayer of Judaism, proclaiming God is one.

Only in recent decades has the role of the cantor become professionalized, with formal training institutes leading to ordination. The Reform movement’s Hebrew Union College cantorial school was founded in 1948 — though Chantara Patent Convertible Back Block Heel Loafers R9OFfKQeo
its graduates were invested, rather than ordained, to emphasize their distinction from rabbis. The Conservative movement’s Jewish Theological Seminary established its school in 1952 (its cantors are invested, not ordained). Beyond their responsibilities as prayer leaders, contemporary cantors typically also officiate at lifecycle events, teach bar and bat mitzvah students, and sometimes provide pastoral services.

Of course, calculating timestamps is no fun, so Active Record provides a generator to handle making it for you:

This will create an empty but appropriately named migration:

If the migration name is of the form "AddXXXToYYY" or "RemoveXXXFromYYY" and is followed by a list of column names and types then a migration containing the appropriate add_column and remove_column statements will be created.

will generate

If you'd like to add an index on the new column, you can do that as well:

Similarly, you can generate a migration to remove a column from the command line:


You are not limited to one magically generated column. For example:

If the migration name is of the form "CreateXXX" and is followed by a list of column names and types then a migration creating the table XXX with the columns listed will be generated. For example:

As always, what has been generated for you is just a starting point. You can add or remove from it as you see fit by editing the db/migrate/YYYYMMDDHHMMSS_add_details_to_products.rb file.

Also, the generator accepts column type as references (also available as belongs_to ). For instance:

This migration will create a user_id column and appropriate index. For more add_reference options, visit the Yosi Samra Stella Knot Flat doatNYUQ7

There is also a generator which will produce join tables if JoinTable is part of the name:

will produce the following migration:

The model and scaffold generators will create migrations appropriate for adding a new model. This migration will already contain instructions for creating the relevant table. If you tell Rails what columns you want, then statements for adding these columns will also be created. For example, running:

will create a migration that looks like this

You can append as many column name/type pairs as you want.

Some commonly used type modifiers can be passed directly on the command line. They are enclosed by curly braces and follow the field type:

For instance, running:

will produce a migration that looks like this

Have a look at the generators help output for further details.

Once you have created your migration using one of the generators it's time to get to work!

The create_table method is one of the most fundamental, but most of the time, will be generated for you from using a model or scaffold generator. A typical use would be

which creates a products table with a column called name (and as discussed below, an implicit id column).

By default, create_table will create a primary key called id . You can change the name of the primary key with the :primary_key option (don't forget to update the corresponding model) or, if you don't want a primary key at all, you can pass the option id: false . If you need to pass database specific options you can place an SQL fragment in the :options option. For example:

In addition to taking the above courses, students will also need to enroll in one of the following two courses:


Alum presents research at 2016 Human Development Conference



Living with a host family is an integral component of the Migration and Transnational Identity program. Homestays provide you with a unique window into the daily life, values, and perspectives of Moroccan families and let you practice language skills, particularly darija (Moroccan Arabic) and, in some cases, French.


You will live with a middle- or working-class family in Rabat for eight to twelve weeks. You have a choice of living arrangements during your four-week ISP period. You can either continue to live with your host family, or receive a stipend to arrange your own accommodation. Homestay families live in the city's seventeenth-century medina, a captivating and historic area with an original architectural style. With your host families, you will experience Moroccan daily life, accompanying family members on regular activities such as shopping in the souk, going on café outings, and visiting the neighborhood bakery. You will also have the opportunity to see the public bath. You may take part in family weddings, newborn-naming ceremonies, or a soccer match.

The homestay is coordinated by the host institution, the Center for Cross Cultural Learning, which has collaborated with homestay families for more than a decade.

Other accommodations during the program include hostels, guest houses, or small hotels.

Independent Study Project

Independent Study Project

You will work closely with your academic director and an advisor to design an Independent Study Project (ISP) on a topic that pertains to migration, mobility, or transnational identity. The ISP provides you with an opportunity to pursue original research on a specific aspect of migration that pertains to your academic interests or personal inclination. The ISP is conducted in Rabat or in another approved location in Morocco appropriate to the project.

Sample ISP topic areas:

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You can choose between an ISP and an internship.

If you choose to complete an internship during the last four weeks of this program, you will be placed with an organization in Morocco to gain work experience and develop professional skills. SIT internships are hands-on and reflective. In addition to completing the internship, you will submit a paper about your learning experience on the job and analyzing an issue important to the organization you worked with. You may also design a socially responsible solution to a problem identified by the organization.

Sample internships:

Career Paths

Career Paths

A diversity of students representing different colleges, universities, and majors study abroad on this program. Many of them have gone on to do amazing things that connect back to their experience abroad with SIT. Recent positions held by alumni of this program include:



This information is provided to assist you in identifying possible accessibility barriers and preparing for an accessible educational experience with SIT Study Abroad. You should be aware that while in-country conditions and resources vary by site, every effort is made to work collaboratively with qualified individuals to facilitate disability-related accommodation. Students with disabilities are encouraged to contact SIT Disability Services at J Renee Geezelouise 6Otnh7
for additional information related to access abroad and to discuss possible accommodations.


During the coursework phase of the program, you will generally be in class five to six days per week for three to five hours per day. You will have breaks between classes. Learning is typically assessed through take-home assignments, oral presentations/exams, and group work. Course readings and in-class materials are typically available in a digital format.

If you have questions about alternate format materials, testing accommodations, or other academic accommodations, you are encouraged to contact the Office of Disability Services as early as possible.

Program Center

The program is hosted by the Center for Cross Cultural Learning (CCCL) in a 19th-century house in the Medina (ancient city). The architecture and spatial organization of the CCCL building is typical of centuries-old Moroccan architecture. Language classes and morning lectures take place at the CCCL while other lectures and activities are scheduled at the Marassa Center, CCCL’s annex. The Marassa Center is approximately a seven-minute walk from the CCCL.

The program office is accessible by a short set of exterior stairs. Classroom space is currently located on the first floor. The program computer space currently has a 10 cm. threshold in the doorway to the space. The library in the program center is located on the basement level and is accessible by stairs.


Good walking or hiking shoes that are comfortable, waterproof, and rubber soled are essential.


The program’s homestay coordinator will be responsible for placing you in your homestays. These placements are based, first, on health concerns, including any allergies or dietary needs, to the extent possible. Homestays offer regular access to electricity to charge devices. The physical accessibility of homestay options is currently limited. If you have questions about homestay accessibility, you are encouraged to contact the Office of Disability Services as early as possible.

Dietary Needs

Homestay families decide on mealtimes and can accommodate a vegetarian diet but are not able to provide for kosher or vegan diets. SIT Study Abroad works with students, program staff, homestay families, home colleges and universities, and others to accommodate dietary needs whenever possible. For more information on dietary needs and dietary preferences, please the Student Support section of the Student Health, Safety, and Support web page.


In Rabat, you’ll typically travel between your homestay, classes, and/or placement sites by walking (5 to 15 minutes). Buses are used for transportation on local excursions; however, they are generally not equipped with wheelchair lifts or ramps and have limited room to stand or stretch. City taxis are considered a reliable, safe, and inexpensive mode of travel. General routes of travel in Rabat have limited accessibility due to cobblestones, potholes, and steep paths. Some areas have curb cuts and traffic signals (but no auditory signals).


You are advised to bring your own academic technology, including laptop computers, thumb drive, audio-visual recording devices, plug adapters, voltage converters (for other electrical devices), and assistive technology. Insuring all personal electronics against loss or theft is highly recommended. The program computer space currently has the following: Wi-Fi, printer, scanner, copier, and desktop computer with word processing and spellcheck. If you have questions about assistive technology, note-taking accommodations, or other academic accommodations, you are encouraged to contact the Office of Disability Services as early as possible.

Health Resources

The program has compiled a list of recommended doctors and health clinics in Rabat, most of whom speak English. Most ordinary prescriptions and over-the counter medicines are widely available. Specialized prescriptions may be difficult to fill. Payment for medical services is covered by your health insurance if the provider is notified prior to or during the medical service.

Admitted students are encouraged to discuss any questions or concerns about accessing health services or medication while abroad during the health review process. Read more about the health review process and the summary of benefits for student health insurance.

Requesting Disability-Related Accommodations

To request disability-related accommodations, admitted students should contact the Office of Disability Services. For more information about the accommodation process, documentation guidelines, and a link to the accommodation request form, please visit the Office of Disability Services website.

Students with disabilities are encouraged to contact Disability Services at [email protected] or 802 258-3390 as early as possible for information and support.

Additional Support Resources

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is a cross-disability organization serving those with cognitive, hearing, learning, mental health, physical, systemic, vision, and other disabilities.It offers numerous resources for persons with disabilities who wish to study abroad and/or engage in international development opportunities.

Abroad with Disabilities (AWD) is a Michigan nonprofit organization founded in 2015 with the goal of promoting the belief that persons with disabilities can and should go abroad. AWD works diligently to empower clients to pursue study, work, volunteer, and/or internship opportunities outside of the United States by creating dialogue, sharing resources, and spreading awareness.

Cost and Scholarships

SIT Study Abroad is committed to making international education accessible to all students. Scholarship awards generally range from $500 to $5,000 for semester programs and $500 to $3,000 for summer programs.This year, SIT will award more than $1.5 million in scholarships and grants to SIT Study Abroad students.

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